Thursday, December 08, 2005

Volume 1, Issue 5

This week the long awaited New Urbanism Presentation is now available!

Thursday, June 30, 2005

New Urbanism is not new

Wrens London

People often ask me, is New Urbanism really new. That is not an easy question to answer. Though New Urbanism is based on traditional and time proven principals going back to the begining of civilization, it is new in the sence that these principals have been lost or forgoten and must be relearned or rediscovered.
The Modernists saught to bring every aspect of life under the control of reason by eliminating the traditional principals upon which the societies of the past were built that they saw as a stumbling block to progress. Their "modernist programme" was more successful than they ever dreamed. Today, few human beings in the world are unfamiliar with the despotic, modernist, techno-scientific landscape that has done near irrepairible damage to not only the built environment all around us but the very fabric of society.
So in reaction the everpresent decline of western civilization, in protest to the contiued forces that are transforming our communities in to a post apocoliptic "junkspace," the New Urbanism is a movement of Architects and communtity designers, of all theoretical and easthetic pursuations, that wish to rediscover and return the design of our bulit environment to the time honoured principals upon which our civilization was originaly and beautifuly founded. The principals of the New Urbanism are old, the protest which is the New Urbanism is new.

Thursday, May 12, 2005

Volume 1, Issue 4

Seventy-five years ago the considerations that would prevent sprawl and create sustainable and healthy communities, such as a close proximity of living, working, and shopping, were simple common sense. Furthermore, community building is not merely a matter of aesthetics; it is a matter of social, economic, and environmental health that shapes the quality of life for millions of Americans. In today’s competitive world, municipalities will be forced to compete with each other for migrating populations and the taxes that go with them as more and more people become fed up with suburban sprawl. Any municipality that is able to offer safer, more efficient communities to live in will have the advantage. Therefore the cooperation of state, federal, and especially local governments with architects and designers to promote healthy communities is vital to the creation of successful cities and towns that will increasingly be in demand. Nonetheless there are many complex issues that make the elimination of suburban sprawl a difficult process. (Suburban Nation 29, 219-221)

The Role of Policy in Healing Urban Sprawl

There are essentially three tools for manipulating the physical environment. They are design, policy, and management. It is important that all three tools be used together. For instance, crime is an urban problem that can and should be affected by all three tools instead of only one. Design is the purview of Architects and Developers who should hold themselves to a higher standard of design that will properly address the problems of urban sprawl. Policy and Management on the other hand are in the arena of local governments and are necessary to ensure the implementation of lasting and meaningful changes to the urban environment. (Suburban Nation 216)

For example: if there is a problem with crime in a neighborhood, a designer can effect many designed elements, such as easily monitored public spaces, that can make a neighborhood safer but only policy can ensure that these elements are implemented throughout a neighborhood or city. Proper management, such as neighborhood cops who are familiar with the area can also significantly decrease crime. If the neighborhood is strewn with trash, it is not a design problem but one of management. If people are speeding down the streets, the issue is more complicated. Street widths and geometries that effect the speed of traffic are design issues but are determined through local municipal standards. Such standards may have been predetermined by county or state standards, which may have been influenced by uncountable factors both state and local. (Suburban Nation 216-217)

For example, in Dade County, Architects Duany Plater-Zyberk were constantly being frustrated by huge street-width standards based on the maneuverability of the city’s large fire trucks which was in return based on the local firefighter’s union that dictated the minimum number of firemen per truck. Such standards can most likely be traced back to federal and state regulations in the positive law tradition. So through an indirect chain of events, “the desire of firefighters for job security resulted in speeding on neighborhood streets.” (Suburban Nation 217)

In this way, “unsatisfying physical environments” are the unintended result of the ever increasingly complex interactions of our “highly evolved” regulatory system. A long list of regulatory forces from local zoning codes to federal automobile subsides has proved caustic to the health of communities in unforeseen ways. Sometimes the only way to improve our environment through good design is to identify and amend policies that actually make it impossible through participation in the political process. In that way we put all three tools of design, policy, and management at our disposal to implement lasting change. “Because government policy has played a major role in getting us where we are today, it can also help us to recover.” (Suburban Nation 218)

Municipal and County Government

People fail to recognize the consequences that our physical environment has on our lives. When the subject arises, it is most likely in the form of vicious citizen protest of something gone, or about to go horribly wrong. Furthermore, sprawl is like a disease that has become so chronic that people are accustom to living with it and they only fight the symptoms and not the real problems that cause the condition in the first place.

For this reason, elected officials who desire to create a change for the good and create meaningful urban places must make design apart of their public policy and try to understand the lasting effects of their decisions. As we have seen before, sprawl “can be traced back to rules and regulations that are instituted with little understanding of their likely physical outcome.” sprawl was not an accident but it was the implementation of regulations conceived of the Modernist Programme “without a specific vision of its physical form or of the life that form would generate.” In some instances these regulations were documented as words and numbers only without the aid of drawings or other visuals. Drawings are far more understandable to the average person when it comes to technical issues where technical language only confuses and masks the real problems. As architects and planners we believe that drawings and other design media can be extremely useful for decision makers as decision-making tools and generators of value. In this way, effective policy can be accompanied with a specific vision that will prevent unintended consequences such as those that accompanied the regulations that led to sprawl. (Suburban Nation 19, 220-219)

With these tools in the hands of officials and decision makers they should begin the process of rewriting the existing and typically outdated zoning ordinances. The new regulations should not be overly complicated but should represent new solutions incorporating lessons learned from the mistakes of the past. New regulations should not only make new neighborhoods possible but should protect instead of damage the integrity of historical neighborhoods. (Suburban Nation 221-222)

For example, existing regulations impose strict building codes on new construction, which in turn take on a dramatically distinct form from that of the surrounding neighborhood. Such construction denigrates the character of historic communities either by sticking out like a sore thumb and creating an incoherent streetscape or through the newness of the new construction creates a standard by which the old buildings are judged. Modern building codes are also negative because they make the renovation of historical buildings nearly impossible though stringent rules that make reoccupying historical buildings uneconomical for developers. (Suburban Nation 222)

In 1988, architects Duany Plater-Zyberk, along with engineer Rick Chellman developed the Traditional Neighborhood Development Ordinance as an alternative to current zoning codes. This code was based on the proven patterns of America’s older cities and towns and traditional neighborhood street design. The TND can be implemented at the Municipal or County level as a complete replacement of existing land use regulations or as an optional alternative. Even the second path is a step forwards as traditional patterns of urban structure are actually illegal. If the TND and other ordinances of the New Urbanism school are disseminated throughout the United States as quickly as “pro-sprawl zoning codes” were in the 1960’s there may be a day when the sprawl can be eliminated from American cities and towns. (Suburban Nation 223)

In most municipalities Duany Plater-Zyberk suggest that it is a mistake to try to fix an old zoning code. The result will be a code that is even more confusing. It is better to start from scratch. The problem is not in creating new codes but in throwing out old ones. Since codes are linked to property value any change in zoning codes may result in millions of dollars of lost profits for influential people with strong political ties who can stop the changes in their tracks. Furthermore, such people are able to sue and win on the grounds of lost compensation. (Suburban Nation 223-224)

It is important to include the citizenry in the decision making process. The public process does not always promise the best outcome. Acting out of fear and self-interest, neighbors will usually respond to locally undesirable land use by violently rejecting it. This is known as the “Not in my backyard” phenomenon. Duany Plater-Zyberk suggest that it is precisely because there is no outlet for public participation that can educate people about the underlying causes of sprawl that new projects to revitalize the urban environment are often effectively opposed by the citizens. (Suburban Nation 226)

Lastly it is important to practice what you preach. Municipal and county governments should not abandon historical buildings and downtowns to relocate their offices on the fringe along with all of the other office parks. They should not put up large parking lots in front of public buildings or face a blank wall to the street. Every government building has the opportunity and the responsibility to make a good impression on the community and set the standard for urban development. (Suburban Nation 227)

Urban Growth Rings (or Urban Growth Boundaries) are a “cutting edge” land use strategy that proposes that an area surrounding a city a city be parceled off for extremely low density so that growth in that area is severely hindered. When growth is prohibited in this area it stops urban sprawl and forces people to remain in the city and even re-inhabit the historic neighborhoods. If done with care and with a plan of action, including the seamless integration of the high-end residences with low-income housing, carefully designed open spaces, and other New Urbanism ideas, an urban growth ring can foster enormous positive growth. Property values will rise and the city will once again be a desirable place to live. True, if property will rise then low income families will struggle for a while but they will quickly find employment at restaurants or retail stores that will relocate to the city centers to serve the rich. Instead of historic neighborhoods becoming slums or ghettos the money coming in from the rich will help breath new life into them. Furthermore, the economic segregation caused by sprawl will be eliminated. Whenever the lines for a new Urban Growth Ring are drawn there bound to be people who are upset. Nonetheless, every city in Oregon has adopted an Urban Growth Ring that has been coordinated and approved by Oregon’s planning agency, the Land Conservation and Development Commission. Sources indicate such steps are necessary in Oregon to defend precious natural resources and protect people from potentially devastating natural disasters if unchecked suburban growth spread into the path of such calamities. (Cullingworth 147-151)

Specifically, Portland, Oregon is praised for having among the best planning policies in the country. They have resulted in building a city with “outstanding urban form.” It features unique public spaces, less traffic congestion, better public schools, and a diverse housing market. The Urban Growth Ring has forced the downtown district to become an energetic mixture of shops, office, and homes that creates a healthy and stable community. A fifteen-mile mass transit rail line connecting the downtown with the suburbs has reduced the amount of traffic and pollution. It has been phenomenally successful with many more riders than were ever projected. Such outstanding results have made the city a wonderful place to live. This would not have been possible if it were not for dedicated public officials involved in planning and a citizenry with a sense of community and pride in and determination to create a beautiful city. Such cooperation and public involvement springs from Oregon’s community centered heritage that can be traced back to Oregon’s first settlers. The whole community, including the media, has cooperated in creating a city worth living in sometimes at the expense of their personal self-interest. Even newcomers have quickly adapted to the Oregon heritage and supported efforts to improve Portland. In some cases the citizens pushed certain construction projects in opposition to elected officials by personally purchasing over 50,000 bricks. Portland is an example of how Urban Renewal is most successful when the public is intimately involved in the city making process. (Smith 90-94)


Concerning the role of government in the elimination of urban sprawl, Duany Plater-Zyberk ask the question whether it “is the role of government to promote individual rights while defending the common good, or to promote the common good while defending individual rights.” They assert that unfortunately our governments have favored the former. This is a very important question when it comes to property rights and the right of the individual to do whatever he pleases on his land. (Suburban Nation 218-220)

According to Downs, local governments must take into account both the individual, public, social benefits, and costs generated by growth management policies to promote the general welfare. But this does not happen as it should. Governments tend to focus on only one of these factors creating unfair policies. Furthermore, policies that rely on voluntary market forces rather than mandatory regulations are preferable but this does not ensure that inequitable spillovers do not occur; such as the noise and pollution of a busy shopping center spilling over into residences. Moreover, the policies of one locale may cause unforeseen consequences that spillover into other localities. (Downs 31-32) Such spillovers represent the inefficiencies in both our intergovernmental relations and land use policies.

Sprawl is inefficient because it is resource intensive; containing hidden externalized costs that spillover to both the societies of today and of the future. It is so inefficient in fact that it requires government subsidies just to maintain an acceptable infrastructure for today. Furthermore it has other unforeseen disadvantages such as social stratification that do not promote the general welfare. The policy reforms that architects and designers such as Duany Plater-Zyberk envision are not about increasing the size of government but rather reforming the government’s influence on the built environment. (Suburban Nation 220) In fact it was the progressive policies of the post war era that are responsible for the increase in government’s role in the built environment that generated the “pro-sprawl zoning codes” in the first place. For these reasons, policies that tend toward New Urbanism are not inherently progressive because once the traditional principals of town and city growth are widely accepted the subsequent society needs less government intrusion. The result is a decreased size of government and a more independent and self-sufficient (not to mention maintainable) society. Therefore, thinking of government’s role in purely Moralistic vs. Individualistic terms is overly simplistic.

The fact is that the government already regulates land use with zoning regulations. Real estate developers already adhere to regulations established by public policy. So the question is not whether the government should interfere in private land use, because they already do. The question is whether they will promote the public welfare through healthy communities. If state and local governments do not make a firm commitment to community in establishing new policies and zoning reform, the actions of the private sector “cannot be expected to be anything but self-interested and chaotic.” (Suburban Nation 218-220)

Though it may seem naive and unlikely that government could produce such a commitment, the first quarter of the twentieth century provides evidence that it is possible. The City Beautiful movement was an unparalleled era of urban revitalization and new construction where wise leaders, on both the local and federal level, promoted the virtues of civic pride, beauty, and community. However, today our approach must acknowledge the global issues that have come to bear on land use since that era. The development of new communication and transportation technologies, globalized markets, and massive social fluctuation has intensified the need for well-designed communities. (Suburban Nation 219)

It is clear that at the very least the establishment of zoning reform and urban growth rings will begin the process of urban renewal. The best we can hope for from state and local governments is a strong commitment to community and to make design a part of the public agenda. Better yet, unprecedented cooperation between governments and public involvement are also necessary ingredients of lasting and meaningful change.

Tuesday, April 12, 2005

Volume 1, Issue 3

By Michael Alexander

I really enjoyed the previous two issues of the New Urbanism so I thought I might submit an article. Don’t get me wrong, the previous articles have been very enlightening pop-culture critiques but they never actually discussed what New Urbanism was. I will try to do that.

What is New Urbanism

The About New Urbanism website says:

“The New Urbanism is a reaction to sprawl. A growing movement of architects, planners, and developers, the New Urbanism is based on principles of planning and architecture that work together to create human-scale, walkable communities. New urbanists take a wide variety of approaches — some work exclusively on infill projects, others focus on transit-oriented development, still others are attempting to transform the suburbs, and many are working in all of these categories. The New Urbanism includes traditional architects and those with modernist sensibilities. All, however, believe in the power and ability of traditional neighborhoods to restore functional, sustainable communities. The trend had its roots in the work of maverick architects and planners in the 1970s and 1980s who coalesced into a unified group in the 1990s. From modest beginnings, the trend is beginning to have a substantial impact. More than 600 new towns, villages, and neighborhoods are planned or under construction in the US, using principles of the New Urbanism. Additionally, hundreds of small-scale new urban infill projects are restoring the urban fabric of cities and towns by reestablishing walkable streets and blocks.

“On the regional scale, the New Urbanism is having a growing influence on how and where metropolitan regions choose to grow. At least 14 large-scale planning initiatives are based on the principles of linking transportation and land-use policies and using the neighborhood as the fundamental building block of a region.”

According to the website of New Urbanism, New Urbanism is “Creating Livable Sustainable Communities.” They also say that it is the practice of “Giving more people more choices about where and how they want to live” I think that is what the previous contributor was trying to say we needed when he/she was saying that Sprawl has a disturbing lack of difference. There is only one way to live in the suburbs, and mostly that life revolves around the car. New Urbanism posits a new way to design communities, one that encourages diversity instead of conformity. But most new urbanism projects look old. That is because New Urbanism isn’t really new at all. It is a rediscovery of the value of time proven methods and traditions for the creation of sustainable communities.

The Transect

The bottom line, as I see it is that sprawl and all associated aspects of our civilization effected adversely by technological advancement, from our built environment, to the food we eat, is not sustainable. They are not self-sustaining but instead require subsidies to stay in existence. A healthy civilization should be able to support itself indefinitely.

For instance, our modern day agricultural methods, thechnologized to “feed the world,” are so impoverished that if the federal government stopped subsidizing farmers they would all go out of business and all food production would stop. This is because farmers buy seeds that cost more than the food they produce will sell for! Instead, we need a sustainable industrial method, one applied to all aspects of modern life. Communities, farms, factories should all be sustainable without public subsidizing.

Volume 1, Issue 2

To simulate is to feign to have what one hasn’t.(Simulacra 167-169)

-Baudrillard, Simulacra and Simulation (1983)

Today we return to the subject of Suburban Sprawl. Whether you call it “Sprawl,” “Suburban Sprawl,” or “Junkspace” it is a cancer that is eating our culture from the inside out. Simply put, S”prawl” is what is left over after Modernization has run its course, the built product of modernization. What went wrong?

The Five Components of Sprawl

The dominant characteristic of sprawl is that each of its components is strictly separated from the rest. Another characteristic of sprawl is its relative simplicity. Traditional towns combine the events of daily life in an infinite number of combinations. In sprawl, life is abstracted into only five components or systems that make up the entirety of daily postmodern living. Any two components may be adjacent to one another but always occur separately. These components are: housing subdivisions, shopping centers, office parks, civic institutions, and roadways. (Duany Plater-Zyberk 5)

Housing subdivisions are large tracts of land developed by wealthy land developers consisting entirely of homes. “They are sometimes called villages, towns, and neighborhoods by their developers, which is misleading since those terms denote places which are not exclusively residential and which provide an experiential richness not available in a housing tract.” Furthermore, most subdivisions are given ridiculously romantic names that signify natural or historic resources they have replaced. Subdivisions, which incorporate curved roads and cul-de-sacs, are inherently disorienting; “no wonder that so many people associate visiting suburbia with getting lost.” Such subdivisions offer only a few places to enter and exit the development forcing traffic onto collector streets and reinforcing traffic congestion. (Duany Plater-Zyberk 5, 34)

The death of the traditional neighborhood or village has caused these labels to become free floating signifiers, labels that have lost their meaning and are applied chaotically wherever it serves a capital purposes to the developer. The names of housing subdivisions, such as “Blue Plains” and “Starling Heights,” are third level images, masking the absence of the basic reality that nothing exists there but houses and parking. (Simulacra 170) Furthermore, the romanticized names are a pastiche of powerful stylized memories in our collective nostalgic meta-history. Like the natural resources, the original references for these romantic names have been lost and are randomly cannibalized, the context with which they were originally intended utterly forgotten. (Jameson 16-25)

The Suburbs

Suburban homes are all the same, simulacrum of some lost referent home immortalized in our combined subconscious television memory of family sitcoms from the 40’s and 50’s or the Brady Bunch. While you drive through them you get lost in the lack of difference. Each house is no different from the next, each subdivision no different from the rest, except in the imagery chosen to lend an air of class to fragile suburban egos. (Schlosser 60)

Shopping centers, a component consisting of retail space such as strip malls, shopping malls, and big box stores are places only for shopping. Shopping centers come in every conceivable size, from small convenience stores to the “Mall of America,” yet most are only one story tall and not one of these is a destination that many may reach by foot. This is because people in subdivisions don’t want them anywhere near their houses. It is not that the neighbors don’t need convenience, it is that they are afraid that a one story, aluminum and glass building with a dirty parking lot flooded with florescent light from a plastic sign might lower their property values. And they are right. No one wants such blight in his or her neighborhood and no one considers a good view of the local shopping center an amenity. The corner store, the traditional main street counterpart to the convenience store on the other hand, was compatible with the residential buildings in the neighborhood and accommodated office and residential space with its multi-story format in a way that lent value to the surrounding properties. (Duany Plater-Zyberk 6, 26) Shopping centers and strip malls also have romantic, idealized names such as “The Village” or “Camelot Place” just like housing tracts.

Fast food chains, a particular kind of shopping experience where people in cars shop for food, thrive among sprawl. They often lead the way by building in areas with low property values where the population is about to boom and where huge amounts of traffic is predicted and set the precedent for future development. Schlosser says that fast food chains accelerate suburban sprawl and help set its tone with their trashy parking lots, flashy signs, and plastic architecture. (Schlosser 65) It is exactly this kind of plastic cheapness that people want to put as far away from their homes as possible. This only reinforces a destructive pattern of growth in an endless quest to move away from the sprawl that only results in creating more of it. (Duany Plater-Zyberk 26)

Office parks are places set aside exclusively for work. The contemporary office park was born from the modernist vision of skyscrapers surrounded by a utopian park like environment to preserve open space. However the office park today is merely a collection of large buildings surrounded by parking lots and encircled by busy streets and accessible only by the automobile. Nonetheless, office parks maintain their idealistic name despite being surrounded by traffic and pollution instead of countryside. The environment features the bear minimum number of trees necessary to fulfill the developer’s obligation to provide vegetation as per zoning regulations and beautification ordinances. The sidewalks provided between the speeding traffic and the parking lots are not for pedestrians because no one ever walks to work. The only pedestrian activity that happens at the base of these buildings is walking to and from an automobile. Lastly, during the lunch hour the workforce is obliged to commute half the time to a shopping center only to rush through a meal at a franchise restaurant. By comparison, in traditional neighborhoods the nearness of the workplace to retail and restaurant space that provides cafes and convenience stores with daytime customers is an essential component to the successful balance of urban life. Furthermore, the closeness of the workplace to homes also gives people the option of walking or riding a bicycle to work. Without this kind of interaction between the different components of life the urban pattern quickly falls apart. (Duany Plater-Zyberk 6, 28)

Office Park

The fourth component of sprawl is civic institutions. This is space zoned for public life, such as town halls, libraries, schools, churches and theaters. In traditional neighborhoods these buildings were given places of importance in the community, accessible to everyone, and often creating the focal point of an entire city, perhaps at the end of a scenic boulevard. In suburbia this form is radically altered. Schools and churches for instances are becoming more like shopping malls, surrounded by enormous parking lots, signs at the road, and located on the fringe. Schools have become too remote to allow children to walk to school forcing the school districts to bus children in at a great expense to the taxpayers and inflating class sizes marginalizing the educations of American students. (Duany Plater-Zyberk 6)

The last component of sprawl is roadways. Thousands upon thousands of miles of paved surface that serves to link the other four disparate components. Traffic is congested because everyone is forced to drive. The average suburban household generates 13 car trips per day. Since sprawl separates the different activities of daily life into segregated zones, it is necessary for most people to spend a lot of time in their automobiles, often alone, to travel along roadways to get to the different places that a wide variety of activities demands. Even if someone lives 75 yards from the front door of Wal-Mart, they will not be able to walk there because of a wall meant to separate the retail component of suburbia from the residential component. He or she will most likely get in their car, drive out of the subdivision, drive down the strip for about a mile and a half, then turn into a parking lot and back track all the way to a parking space, only to walk the remaining 75 yards to the doors of the store. (Duany Plater-Zyberk 7, 25)

When you drive on the collector streets, the mega corporation restaurant chains mysteriously repeat themselves over and over again every few miles. The exact same building each time, a simulacrum, it makes you think you are driving in circles. (Schlosser 60) Our culture thrives on disorientation and honors manipulation. Koolhaas describes the suburban strip as “Superstrings of graphics, transplanted emblems of franchise and sparkling infrastructures of lights, LED’s, and video describe an authorless world beyond anyone’s claim, always unique, utterly unpredictable, yet intensely familiar.” (Koolhaas 410)

It is easy to see that Sprawl is not just the postmodern condition of our built environment only but the total end result of the Modernist Programme on absolutely every aspect of life that has led to the breakdown of reality into images that mask basic realities and images that mask the absence of basic realities. We are bombarded with these images day and night until the pervasiveness of the hyperreal fills not only the homes we live in but cloths we buy, the cars we drive, and even the food we eat.

Bibliography of Works Sited

Baudrillard, Jean, Simulacra and Simulation, 1983

Duany, Plater-Zyberk Andres, Suburban Nation: The rise of sprawl and the decline of the American Dream, North Point Press, New York, 2000

Jameson, Fredric, Postmodernism or the cultural logic of late capitalism, 1990

Koolhaas, Rem, Junkspace, Harvard Design School Guide to Shopping, Harvard Press, 2003

Schloser, Eric, Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002

Thursday, April 07, 2005

Volume 1, Issue 1

"The cities will be part of the country; I shall live 30 miles from my office in one direction, under a pine tree; my secretary will live 30 miles away from it too, in the other direction, under another pine tree. We shall both have our own car. We shall use up tires, wear out road surfaces and gears, consume oil and gasoline. All of which will necessitate a great deal of work… enough work for all."

-Le Corbusier, The Radiant City (1967)

With these prophetic words, Le Corbusier predicted the coming of our current built environment dominated by modernism. Known as “Sprawl,” “Suburban Sprawl,” or “Junkspace” it is simply what is left over after Modernization has run its course, the built product of modernization. Each individual component of “Suburban Sprawl,” from the neon tube to the air conditioner, from the traffic signal to the escalator, is a brilliant monument to the Modernist Programme of a rationally derived utopia. What went wrong? Mile after mile of neon signs, plastic architecture, pollution clogged streets, and asphalt covered deserts.

The Suburbs

A Brief History of Sprawl
Sprawl really began in the 1950’s shortly after the Second World War. The Federal Housing Commission and the Veterans Administration provided mortgages to millions of returning veterans to build single-family homes. So inexpensive were these mortgages that it quickly became more affordable for veterans to build their own homes than to reoccupy the existing homes already present in the towns. At the same time 41,000 miles of interstate highways and federal and local subsidies for roadwork and the abandonment and sabotage of the mass transit system, made automobile commuting both affordable and convenient for average middle class families for the first time. In this time of new economic freedoms and opportunities, many families made the financial decision to move farther and farther away from historical city centers and into what would become known as the suburbs. (Duany Plater-Zyberk 7-9)

The suburban neighborhoods these families were moving to were being developed by government programs that addressed only housing instead of the pre-war neighborhood-making tradition of providing for the full range of daily activities within walking distance of homes. These subdivisions were nothing but street after street of single-family homes. Originally the stores and workplaces remained in the city centers and people commuted to work, school, or to shop from the suburbs, but it was not long before the stores realized that their customers had moved and followed suit. Since no provision had been made for the location of retail space, such as the traditional corner store, stores required their own separate location, neatly segregated from the residential neighborhoods by the new zoning codes. The new suburbanites already used to commuting found no difficulty in driving one or two miles to the store for something they could have walked to just less than a decade before. Retail was situated between subdivisions and placed along wide collector streets for better ease of access. The new stores reacted by pushing back from the street, putting parking in the front for their customers, and erecting freestanding signage along the street to attract patrons. And just like that the shopping center and the strip mall were born. (Duany Plater-Zyberk 8-9)

The Suburbs

Workplaces such as offices and factories remained in the city centers and the downtown business districts for longer than the retail spaces but it did not take long for them to follow suit. Eventually, by the 1970’s, due to the lower tax burden in the suburbs, the businesses and corporations began to relocate to new office parks nearer the workforce. These office parks were also subdivided into their own zones, cut off from the residences, and accessible only by the automobile. And all the while zoning codes and ordinances were evolving into the complex regulatory system that made it the law that every different aspect of daily life must be segregated from every other. Within the decade these “pro-sprawl zoning codes” had reached a near universal acceptance all over America. (Duany Plater-Zyberk 9-10)

New Urbanism

New Urbanism is an urban design movement that became very popular beginning in the 1980s and early 1990s.

The goal of new urbanists is to reform all aspects of real estate development and urban planning. These include everything from urban retrofits, to suburban infill.

The new urbanism is a reaction to sprawl. A growing movement of architects, planners, and developers, new urbanism is based on principles of planning and architecture that work together to create human-scale, walkable communities. New urbanists take a wide variety of approaches -- some work exclusively on infill projects, others focus on transit-oriented development, still others are attempting to transform the suburbs, and many are working in all of these categories. New urbanism includes traditional architects and those with modernist sensibilities. All, however, believe in the power and ability of traditional neighborhoods to restore functional, sustainable communities.


The Suburbs